The profession and the institution

The Accounting profession took a big step forward and received a big boost in its recognition from the 1990s. However, it was not an easy road to reach that point. Below we present the time line of some key dates for the profession: from the first accountancy school, to the Industrial Tax Code, the creation of ATOC, the change of statutes that allowed the transition from a Chamber to an Association and the election of the first President of the Institution. The regulatory body of the profession is today the largest Portuguese professional association, with around 72,000 members.

1759• The Marquis of Pombal creates the "Aula do Comércio” school. This was thefirst teaching establishment officially created in Portugal to teach Accountancy. According to the research carried out by Lúcia Lima Rodrigues, Delfina Gomes and Russel Craig, and financed by CTOC, it is very likely that it was the first official Accountancy school in the world
1958• The Chartered Accountant profession arose for the first time in the Portuguese legal order through a provision consecrated in the Industrial Tax Code, as a consequence of the tax reform carried out between 1958 and 1963. This decree is limited to creating the profession of the Chartered Accountant, without however being accompanied by legal regulations governing the exercising of the profession, or the definitions of the functions of these professionals. It is limited to demanding that income declarations are signed by the said Chartered Accountants registered in the Directorate-General of Contributions and Taxes (DGCI).
1963• Entrance in force of the Industrial Tax Code. From this moment onwards, the Chartered Accountants began to undertake praiseworthy work within the scope of Accountancy and Taxation. However, the ills of the Portuguese business community contributed to the work carried out by the professionals not being duly recognised

• Over seven years the political power ignored the Chartered Accountants, consigning them to mere administrative employees. The lack of rigour in the financial statements was obvious. It became indispensable to seek a legal framework that defined the functions and responsibilities of the Chartered Accountant, simultaneously endowing it with the public status of a profession
1995•  It is in this background that in the State Budget of 1995 (Law no. 39-B/94, of 27 December), taking into account that it was a matter reserved for the Portuguese Parliament, the government asked for and obtained legislative authorisation to regulate the exercising of the profession and this authorisation gave rise to Decree Law no. 265/95, of 17 October, through which the Statutes of the Chartered Accountants were approved and for the first time a legal framework was created for the exercising of the profession
• Regulations of the profession with publication of Decree-Law no. 265/95, of 17 October. It was the start of a new era, in which greater responsibilities are asked of the professionals who were henceforth referred to as Chartered Accountants. The Association of Chartered Accountants (ATOC) was established, whose Founding Committee was installed in premises yielded by the Ministry of Finance, on the 4th floor of no. 69 of Rua Nova do Almada. Registration is compulsory to exercise the profession  [1].
1996• The Founding Committee and the Registration Committee of ATOC take office on 15 July

Founding Committee

António Domingues de Azevedo

Vice President
Manuel Viriato Cardoso Patuleia

Full-time members
Albano de Pinho dos Santos
Fernando Coelho de Melo
José António Matias Araújo

Deputy members
António Eduardo de Freitas Jesus
Mário Portugal Resende

Registration Committee

Carlos Alberto Afonso Rebelo

José Fernando da Silva Matias

Maria Madalena Porto Castanho

Mariano Garcia Inácio

Manuel José Rebelo dos Santo


1998• In September the new Chamber of Chartered Accountants (CTOC) headquarters is opened, on Avenida 24 de julho, in Lisboa [4]
1999•  On 4 January the first governing bodies of ATOC take office [3]
• Through Decree-Law no. 452/99, of 5 November, the Association of Chartered Accountants changes its name to the Chamber of Chartered Accountants. The new Statutes of the Chamber of Chartered Accountants are established
• At the end of November the first referendum, and the only one up until now, takes place with approves the Deontological Code
• Launch of the CTOC website with the address www.ctoc.pt
2000• On 1 January the Deontological Code comes into force, to meet the need to establish behavioural rules for all the professionals
• In April edition 1 of the "TOC” Journal is published
• The first two permanent subsidiaries of CTOC are inaugurated, in the Azores (Ponta Delgada) and in Madeira (Funchal). Aveiro, Braga, Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Faro, Leiria, Porto, Santarém, Setúbal, Vila Real and Viseu also get their respective subsidiary
2002• Start of the implementation of the electronic system of tax declarations. A project in which CTOC had an in-depth and decisive involvement
• On 8 January the Governing Bodies of CTOC took office for the 2002-2004 three-year cycle
• First National Meeting of the Chartered Accountants (TOC), held in Batalha. Around one thousand professionals take part
• On 13 December, Rogério Fernandes Ferreira and António Sousa Franco receive honorary membership diplomas from the Chamber
2003• In March the new CTOC registration rules come into force, with certain CV requirements in order to register into the Chamber
• On 24 June, the CTOC Study Office (GECTOC) takes office, presided over by António Sousa Franco [2]
2004• Presentation, on 25 May, of the "Contabilidade & Gestão” (Accountancy and Management) scientific journal published by CTOC, in partnership with ADCES
• Daniel Bessa takes office as president of GECTOC, after the death of Sousa Franco
2005•  Quality Control was created, with the essential aims of enhancing the consolidation and credibility of the profession. Opening of registrations for applicants to the Quality Control team.
• In July the "Pasta TOC” project is launched, aimed at making the way the chartered accountants communicate with the Institution more efficient, using electronic means. [5]
• The CTOC invests in a complementary Social Security system for its members. The Pension Fund is created for Chartered Accountants.
• In October commemorations begin of the 10th anniversary of the public recognition of the profession.
• Upon a decision by the Extraordinary General Meeting, José Alves da Silva is added to the restricted group of honorary members of the Chamber.


2006• Prolatino - The International Accountancy Congress of the Latin World, the great mentor of whom is António Lopes de Sá, is held for the first time outside Brazil. The eighth congress is held in Santa Maria da Feira. CTOC organises the congress
• On 16 May the new CTOC headquarters are opened. Located on Av. Barbosa du Bocage, no. 45, Lisbon, the "home” of the chartered accountants now covers 6,500 square metres (four thousand of which are above ground level), split over six floors. It reflects the growth of the profession and the inevitable move to premises that meet the current and future needs. [8]
•  On 3 and 4 November the 2nd Congress of Chartered Accountants is held, in the Atlantic Pavilion, in Lisbon. On the theme of "New pathways, a better future”, around four thousand chartered accountants attend as the event brings an end to the 10th anniversary commemorations of the public recognition of the profession. [9]
2007• The idea to create the "Casa do TOC” (Chartered Accountants’ Home), a facility for elderly professionals to stay and meet is carried forward by the management, which makes funds available to buy land in Lisbon and Porto.
• For the first time in its history, a training cycle organised by the Chamber surpasses 21,000 participants. It happened with the first training initiative of 2007, which was held in all the district subsidiaries in Portugal
• The date of 20 March becomes a historic landmark for the Institution. A protocol is signed with BES/Tranquilidade group that allows all the Chartered Accountants to benefit from free health insurance, provided their membership is up to date. It is another measure adopted by CTOC geared to the institution’s social concerns
• On 4 May, in Porto, a cycle of conferences begins on an increasingly pertinent topic: "The rights and guarantees of the taxpayers and the prerogatives of the Taxation Authorities.” Thousands of Chartered Accountants all over Portugal learn about the tax abuses, the preponderance of the taxation machine and ways of fighting against it
• The Accountancy History Committee (CHC) is officially presented. It was 10 April. The CHC's task is to study, research and compile information on the History of Accountancy, which is an area that has been neglected in Portugal
• At the start of May, CTOC opens the doors of its headquarters to host the public launch of the Simplified Company Information (IES) system, to an audience of 600 professionals. The Minister of State and Finance, Teixeira dos Santos, Minister of the Presidency, Pedro Silva Pereira, Minister of Justice, Alberto Costa and Governor of the Bank of Portugal, Vítor Constâncio, are present at the historical event for the professionals [11]
• On 18 May, in a Management meeting, the regulations on training credits are approved for the purposes of quality control. 
• On 6 June, and for the first time in its history, CTOC organises the ceremony for the delivery of certificates to new members. Eighty-six professionals receive the certificate. After each cycle of admittance exams, the ritual is maintained
• Supported by CTOC, on 27 June, during the "1st Local Finances and Accountancy Meetings”, a presentation is made of the third edition of the Financial Annual Book of Portuguese Municipalities, written by four university professors, referring to the year 2005. It provides an unparalleled x-ray of rigour and independence as regards the municipal accounts as shown by the fact that each edition arouses more interest by a broad range of economic and political powers.
• On 15 November, the experimental phase of the remote training system began. It was the first step of a process that promised to revolutionise the training administered by the Council to its members
• A total of 16,716 chartered accountants exercised their right to vote in choosing the new governing bodies for the 2008/2010 three-year period. The list led by A. Domingues de Azevedo obtained 9,528 votes, against 5,091 votes for the competing list. The elections of 7 December had the highest ever turnout of voters
• The European Federation of Accountants and Auditors for SMEs (EFAA), of which CTOC is a member, chose Lisbon to hold its 2nd Conference. Around 1,200 chartered accountants were present in the Aula Magna, proving that the Chamber's goal of investing in its internationalisation was a correct policy

2008• April saw the definitive start of remote training. The chartered accountants now had unparalleled conditions for access to training and the compulsory credits as outlined in the Quality Control Regulations
•  For the second consecutive time, CTOC organised Prolatino – The International Congress of Accountancy in the Latin World, in Portugal, in what was the ninth edition of the congress. In Lisbon, around 1,400 Portuguese and Brazilian chartered accountants attended the congress, on 9 and 10 May [7]
• In September daily broadcasts began of the radio programme entitled "Conselho Fiscal” (Tax Advice), in a partnership between TSF and the Chamber
2009• The Chamber and Federal Council of Accountancy are received in the World Bank, in Washington, within the scope of the project to transfer knowledge to Portuguese-speaking countries
• The political power publicly recognises the qualitative evolution of the profession by approving the transformation of the Institution into an Association in a Council of Ministers, and the consequent change of statutes. This landmark coincides with the presentation of the new Accounting Standardisation System (SNC)
• On 9 July, the plenary session in Parliament debated the draft law 276/x, which authorises the government to change the statutes of the CTOC
• On 23 July, Parliament voted in favour of the draft law 276/x which enabled the CTOC statutes to be changed and the organisation to become the professional Association. It is a new step after 14 years of public recognition of the profession. On 26 October of the same year decree-law no. 310 of 2009 is published in the Diário da República (Official Gazette), which formalises the new and largest professional association in Portugal
•  The President of the Republic authorises the government to change the CTOC statutes after ratifying the decree.
• The 3rd Chartered Accountants Congress is the biggest ever event held by the Institution, with around 5,300 professionals attending at the Atlantic Pavilion over two days.
• On 16th November, in an extraordinary general meeting, a change to the election regulations is approved
• Specialised colleges are created
• On 1 March, Domingues de Azevedo is proclaimed winner of the elections by the Association, and becomes its first President [10]
• The gallery of presidents is opened in the main hall of the Association's headquarters
• The Association and the Spanish Association of Accountancy and Administration of Companies (AECA) sign a collaboration protocol
• The largest National Meeting of chartered accountants ever is held in Lisbon, which brings together 1,300 professionals and their respective partners
• The Association and TSF organise a conference in Porto on the theme "What can be done for Portugal? Measures to overcome the crisis”. Pacheco Pereira, Rui Rio, Rui Moreira, Paulo Rangel, João Salgueiro and Pina Moura join the debate
• The 1st Portuguese-Brazilian Accountancy Meeting takes place in October, in the city of Florianópolis, Brazil

2011•  22nd CILEA International Seminar, held at the Funchal Congress Centre. It was the first time the Association organised a conference of this kind in the autonomous regions. The president of the regional government. Alberto João Jardim, opens the conference
• The Association and TSF gather all the political leaders with a parliamentary seat at the CCB, in a conference on "The European Union and taxation policy”
• A new era in SITOC is inaugurated, with the end of the CD-Rom
• The Association and the Portuguese Taxation Association (AFP) sign a collaboration protocol
• The Association creates the Portuguese Taxation Observatory, in partnership with the Diário Económico newspaper and the Portuguese Taxation Association
• The Association and TSF start a cycle of "The Sum of the Parts” conferences, in Faro, on 18 July.
• On 8 August, in Luanda, the President meets with the founding committee of the Accountants Association and Accountancy Experts of Angola, within the scope of the project for knowledge transfer to Portuguese-speaking countries (PALOP)
• First public discussions within the scope of the specialised colleges of OTOC
2012After a test period, the Association's new website begins working
• A legislative initiative is launched by the Association with a view to making means available for the timely delivery of tax declarations
• 32 chartered accountants receive the diploma that certifies that they are the first specialist members of the Association
• The Association and the Ministry of the Economy organise a "Portugal growing” clarification session
• On 14 and 15 September the 4th Chartered Accountants Congress is held in the Atlantic Pavilion, in Lisbon, with around 4,000 professionals attending
• On 15 November, the Association becomes an associate member of IFAC, after a vote in Cape Town, South Africa
• TOConline, a new tool at the service of the professional chartered accountants starts an experimental phase
• The Association Order creates a job market area listing vacancies on its website
• The "Sum of the Parts” cycle of conferences finishes, in which the Association and TSF toured the country for one and a half years. The last event took place at Pátio Galé, in Lisbon. On the occasion, the President of the Republic and the President of the European Commission sent messages. The Prime Minister brought the event to a close [13]
• On 15 March, the President was distinguished as a "Taxation Senator” by the IDEFF
•  13th International Costs Congress takes place in the Customs Building, in Porto, on 18 and 19 April, with five hundred people attending from Europe and South America. [12]
• OTOC, The Economics Faculty of Porto University and the Observatory of the Economy and Fraud Management sign a collaboration protocol
• The first meeting of chartered accountants in Trás-os-Montes, in Vila Flor, takes place in July
• The Association signs a cooperation protocol with the Association of Administrative and Taxation Jurisdiction Magistrates of Portugal (AMJAFP)
•  The first conference organised by a specialist college of the Association  (Consumption Taxes) takes place in the Main Auditorium of the CCB, in Lisbon, with an audience of one thousand professionals [15]
• The President of the Association, Domingues de Azevedo, is elected the first vice-president of CILEA, in an election in Punta del Este, in Uruguay
• The Association and ISCAL organise the 15th Congress of Accountancy and Auditing at FIL in the Parque das Nações, in Lisbon
2014• On 30 January a cycle of conferences begins entitled "Private Initiative - The economy, companies and the tax system”, organised by the Association and TSF, at the Cupertino de Miranda Foundation in Porto
• On 11 February the Association signs a protocol with the Association of Accountants and Auditors of Mozambique (OCAM), within the scope of the knowledge transfer project
• The Association signs protocols with the Central Administrative Tribunal of the South (TCAS) and the Central Administrative Tribunal of the North (TCAN)
• 24,000 members undertook training by the Association on the 2014 State Budget, closure of the 2013 accounts and the Company Tax (IRC) reform
• Created in 2010, the OTOC page on Facebook reaches 20,000 followers on 12 February.
• On 29 April, the extraordinary general meeting of the Association approves the investment plan for Lisbon and Porto by a large majority. In the same meeting, Carlos Rebelo becomes an honorary member of the institution
• On 9 June, precisely 10 years after the death of the first president of the Study Office of the Association, António de Sousa Franco, GEOTOC organises a conference in tribute to him
• On 30 June, the extraordinary meeting of the Association approves the strategic orientation proposal of the Management Board in the wake of the constant malfunctioning of the government's Finance Portal
•  Created in 2003, the Pasta TOC has an image overhaul and new functionalities are added
• The Financial Year Book of Portuguese Municipalities, known as the "bible” of local power, commemorates 10 years of existence. Conferences are held in Lisbon, Ponta Delgada and Funchal [14]
• The 12th National Meeting of chartered accountants takes place in Aveiro, on 19 July
• The Association and the Santander Totta bank sign a factoring agreement.
• On 31 October elections are held for the governing bodies of the Association, won by the only list, led by Domingues de Azevedo, with 88.10 percent of the votes

• On 21 July the Great Conference on Taxation Policy is held at the Champalimaud Foundation, in Lisbon, in partnership with TSF, which includes the candidates for the general elections in October

• On 26 June, simultaneously with the conference held in Lisbon with EFAA, Ezequiel Fernandes, a member of the Management Board of the Association, is elected to the board of Europe’s largest accountants organisation

• On 30 June the Association and the private television channel, TVI, sign a collaboration protocol

• On 12 July, the Association and TSF start the "Business in Portuguese” cycle of conferences, in São Tomé e Principe

• The Information System for Accountants and Auditors of Mozambique comes into force (SICAM)

• "An ambition, a commitment, a pathway” is the theme of the 5th Chartered Accountants Congress, which gathers 3,500 professionals for two days of work at the Meo Arena, in Lisbon

•  Law no. 139/2015 of 7 September transforms the Chartered Accountants Association into the Certified Accountants Association, and changes the respective Statutes, approved through Decree-Law no. 452/99, of 5 November, in compliance with Law no. 2/2013, of 10 January, which establishes the legal regime for the creation, organisation and functioning of public professional associations

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